“Time may be the fire we burn in.” And though we may not be able to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have attempted to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows to your crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance becomes a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The interior environment of Cryogenic storage Dewar is a world apart, a reminder from the ultimate heat-death that has to befall our universe within the eons to come.
For those who attempt to discover truths in regards to the workings in the cell, holding back the floodgates of time is a problem of significant proportions. Scientists are often interested in very specific cell properties that happen at critical junctions within the lifetime of a cell. Holding these processes from increasing while their properties might be exploited is akin to the issue of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been utilized as one solution to the issue of the slow burn. By reducing the temperatures of samples towards the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature from which all metabolic activity concerns a halt, scientists are able to seclude moments in time, returning time and again to analyze that instant of all time.
Not surprisingly, cryogenics is now an important industry which enables customized products for pretty much every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the market in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, packing containers, and dewars in every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With such a multitude of products to select from knowledge of which of them are most effective may elude the typical consumer. As a way to provide a summary of the main producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers will probably be profiled in this article.
Ultra-low lab freezers are one of those particular things that a lot of people never think of until they quit working. Built to run for several years without interruption in service, lab freezers are the quiet sentinels of your laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch across the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists avoid the idea of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they attempt to erase the memory throughout the day in the event it did. A career’s amount of samples can be lost in just one afternoon– numerous years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on the ground. Though such a scenario looms ominously from the periphery for each researcher’s consciousness, not many are prepared for the day in the event it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers have taken great pains to make certain that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that usually are meant to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies is definitely the only company that uses the Kleemenko cooling cycle in the refrigerators. Even though the gas industry has utilized this method for many years, MMR Technologies was the very first company to patent the technology and adapt it for very small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
How the Kleemenko cycle works is that a blend of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and is capable to expand using a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, along with the cool gas passes back the temperature exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. A number of liquid-vapor separators might be incorporated within the cycle so the expansion of the liquid can be used to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is actually a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is designed for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and the body parts. The machine allows the scientist to warm and cool samples uniformly without shocking them, and since it has an internal power source you can use it to the transportation of samples from storage facility to research laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the demand for controlled temperature ramping.
“As being a user you need to know the minimum temperature and the way it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling helps to ensure that uniform temperatures happen to be maintained throughout the cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, which is actually a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are equipped for biological samples at temperatures to -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages could be preserved for extended periods. Locking lids are provided so that you can protect samples from accidental contact with ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are helpful for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits a great deal of its ultralow freezing capabilities to the heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The temperature-conducting quality on this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to run longer and colder than would otherwise be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer is capable of holding samples beneath the crystallization point.
In line with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also utilizes a special mixture of azeotropic gases that are non-flammable and enable on-site recycling. In addition, a built in timer cycles the low stage compressor every round the clock, turning it off to ensure the capillary tubing is going to be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. carries a long tradition of making ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. In reality, with 4 decades of expertise under its belt, So-Low is one of the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the industry. When the Montreal Protocol started the phase out from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was the first to work with Dupont Suva 95, the newest CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler along with less pressure than CFCs. In addition to its investigation of eco friendly refrigerants, So-Low has additionally developed a cutting-edge compressor that is certainly designed only for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units as an alternative to the normal cylindrical containers. Every one of these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy accessibility, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, plus a storage system adjusts to fit an array of tube sizes. Forma offers a patented double door unit that separates long term from everyday storage.
Revco is probably the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers exceeding fifty years of expertise in the business. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as low as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and can be purchased in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions on the external and internal environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. Furthermore, it includes a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil from your evaporating coils.
Sanyo has become manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers for over twenty years, starting with its manufacture of the first -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the introduction of the very first -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and additional demonstrated its position by becoming the 1st manufacturer to provide a complete variety of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of many largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers available today. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are equipped for utilization in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The term dewar, originally applied to double walled glass vacuum flasks, has become put on a wide range of insulated vessels created for upkeep of samples in liquid nitrogen. Based on their size, dewars usually rest on to the floor or sit on tabletops where samples can easily be accessed. Due to the quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures provided that 12 months without having to be regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The normal thermal wall consists of an aluminum or steel sandwich full of polyurethane. The dimensions and configuration of dewars vary to this type of extent that lots of companies build custom dewars to order. Some of these companies as well as their products are reviewed inside the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE made laboratory freezers for numerous applications. Of course, animal breeders are only a small portion of its customers. Blood and cell storage as well as organ shipment are an equally large a part of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the easiest-growing portion of the marketplace for the company’s products.
MVE was the very first company to develop biological freezers capable of maintaining a -190°C environment for the full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since that time MVE has released the complete line of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are capable of handling as much as 36,000 vials at temperatures only -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are fitted to cells that may be stored at -125°C but can become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers may also be helpful for storing hazardous materials that may cross-communicate in a liquid medium, including contaminated-blood bags which can be liable to break open.
Quantum Technology is really a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in the usa and Germany. Its product line includes from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
Based on Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, a great way his company has managed to remain competitive is simply by offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling point of Quantum’s refrigeration systems is that they can be custom-built.
Certainly one of Quantum Technology’s most popular products can be a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is just $4 or $5 per liter, in lots of countries away from Canada And America and Europe, the cost of purchasing helium is an issue of concern. That is one of the reasons why Quantum Technology makes a reliable two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator in which the helium is retained in the system. The helium out of this refrigerator is reliquified to use over and over.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, offers a Thermo-Flask type of products which include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, stainless-steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six the latest models of can be purchased with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and every one of these models is offered by using a 24-month warranty. Other special features of the Thermo-Flask line of products include vented lids in order to avoid pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to offer coolant retention for samples held in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, which can be distributed by several companies throughout the us. The Bio-Cane systems can be bought in five sizes and give features including super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be purchased in four sizes and have capacities up to 6,000 vials. Together with a few of the standard features within the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks with a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, plus an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates connection with liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes many different traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are manufactured from borosilicate glass protected by a protective mesh, and every wide-mouth model includes a vented polyethylene stopper to lessen evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can also be jacketed in aluminum casing for extra safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are best for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times above 14 days. Every one of these units come equipped with the lowest-evaporation stopper, a fully shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Options for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International helps make the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars which allow the researcher to store large volumes of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Each one of these units is complemented by their own inventory control system, which was designed to maximize the quantity of vials which can be safely arranged in to a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials might be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are among the most frequently used and least considered implements within the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out some day. Then its time to visit shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is usually guided by three primary issues, the initial that concerns the challenge of whether or not they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials suggest that material is trapped in the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents in the internally threaded sort believe that externally threaded vials tend to be more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although reports have been conducted in order to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, as well as the debate proceeds.
Another consideration that comes into mind when choosing cryogenic tubes is definitely the material from where these are constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, stronger than glass, they be more difficult to warm which might negatively change the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes may also be contaminated with releasing fluids in the molding process. However, releasing fluids can be removed with all the good care, and a few brands like Axygen are looking at new polished molds which do not require using releasing fluids. Glass, alternatively, warms rapidly but is additionally subject to fracture due to microchannels which can form within the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, and even violent explosions. Plastic vials can also be vulnerable to nitrogen penetration but the chance of explosion is not really as great.
Gasketing has been specifically a problem of some contention within this industry. Many cryovials are equipped with a washer that keeps the interior pressure of your vial from expelling the tube’s contents when it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid increase of gas within the tube is sufficient force cells and fluid throughout the lids of many non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is often preferred because the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber is additionally used, it possesses a tendency to lose its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, an issue that was demonstrated if the “O” rings about the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, supplies a large variety of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes that can be used at temperatures as low as -190°C. Designed for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come provided with attached leak proof caps that contain a dual lip and a silicon washer. An exclusive ridge on each cap makes handling easier, leading to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts along with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® brand of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, along with other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials are available in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and three.5 ml sizes are available in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also has a wide range of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. Some examples are polypropylene tubes, which can be used with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and are pressure tested in a vacuum chamber to be sure the longevity of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen recently designed a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, for use in lipid fractionation studies. It really is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube with the 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. One of the outstanding attributes of this tube is that it is completely transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a variety of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities which can be silicone gasketed and guaranteed for use in a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and so are certified being sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, as the System 100 vials are bound to be leakproof in the microcentrifuge up to 8,000 g and during shipment and transport. However, the organization warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase could lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have provided CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for almost every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it provides developed a comprehensive catalog of items for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® can be bought in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is made of Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that can be hermetically sealed. They are ideal for the preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like each of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials which are constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction means they are exceptionally durable, and they could be flame sealed or stored using a wide selection of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes some polypropylene vials that are designed for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come provided with various features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and simple-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features can be purchased with selected styles. All Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures that happen to be designed with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene without mineral fillers or chemical toxins. Foreign substances are added only at the request of the customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions including iron, chromium, or nickel which can be typical constituents of dyes. Each one of the company’s vials is made to snap closed in the locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports make your insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system features a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees the microtube is aligned from the centrifuge rotor to get re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. has an extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes that happen to be appropriate for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that can come in a big selection of sizes, shapes, and colours. An individual has the choice of choosing from a number of externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps that could be colored for identification. Most of Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, along with the polypropylene material from which they are constructed enables them to endure subfreezing temperatures along with temperatures and pressures in a autoclave. Among the areas that Sarstedt has paid particular attention to in developing its brand of products is the need for cryogenic vials that have reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and can be found in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes may be exposed to a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and every one of its O-ring sealed tubes has become sterilized.
Storage inventory systems can be a critical component of any long-term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they may undergo changes that can make them hard to keep trace. Labels could become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes could be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. One of the more popular strategies for containing samples is the canister and cane. By using this technique, a number of vials are enclosed in a long aluminum shaft that may be submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be easily manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage which could occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer technique is usually preferred. Although drawer systems have a tendency to expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility from the system reduces exposure time and energy to ambient temperatures resulting in less evaporation from your freezer, as well as reduces the researcher’s exposure to possibly damaging cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are created to optimize the volume of space for storing afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The typical inventory configuration is actually a cardboard or stainless construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems permit the user to set up up to 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International is an expert in making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Created for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems can be bought in numerous sizes, shapes, and colors to put just about any freezer. Clear lids allow contents to become viewed without opening the containers, and they may be adjusted in certain models to support tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that contain storage racks for holding as many as 267 microtubes. These drawers might be installed in any upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise several plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are keyed to stop misalignment and provide temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide stainless steel retainer systems works with all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They have vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for simple retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes to have an increasing selection of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, Cryogenic ISO Tank Container has responded with boxes and racks which are constructed for numerous samples of both well plates and cryovials. They have also introduced boxes with telescoping lids as a way to satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is amongst the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic packing containers. The truth is, many of its goods are sold as standard accessories with several of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are built from stainless-steel and include a selection of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems can be bought as individual units or as complete racks for usage in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Almost certainly, the cryogenic products one buys today would be the same ones that can be used for years to come. An investment made today may work for decade. In effect, researchers buying CNG Trailer are not only buying products by themselves, they can be buying for their successors. The consumer should look into what might 46dexkpky over the course of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated because of improper storage. A little bit money that was saved in the beginning by scrimping on vials or freezers might not exactly seem like the best trade off when valuable samples are lost. Despite the safeguards internal to many of these devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on the products a priority. Appointing a lasting position that is responsible for the cryogenic safety from the laboratory’s biological collection is amongst the best ways to assure the integrity of such samples.